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"Sandra Brown, M.A." Articles

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Relationship Articles

Abuse Articles
ABUSE SURVIVAL KIT.
ABUSE TOWARDS WOMEN
Are They An Anti-Social Emotional Vampire?
Are You In An Abusive Relationship?
Breaking Free of Explotive Relationships: TRAUMA
Characteristics of a Misogynist
CHECKLIST: Are You A Victim Of Abuse?
CONTROL FREAKS: Trampling Privacy & Boundaries
Domestic Violence and Women with Disabilities
Emotional Abuse Causes Depression
Emotional Rape Syndrome
Father butchers wife & stabs 8 yr old son, WA
Favorite Phrases of a "Player"
From The Abuser's Point of View
How 'They' View Their World
How Borderlines Abuse Others
I Thought Everything Was My Fault
In Sheep's Clothing: Covert-Aggression
Is He Abusive? (Characteristics)
Is He Really Changing? How Can I Tell?
Is Your Partner A Narcissist?
Jerks who fuck with your mind
Let Go of Abuse-Coping Behaviors Holding You Back
Sex Addict Behaviors
Signs of Emotional Abuse
The Boiling Frog
The Devaluation Funhouse
Traumatic Bonding: The Betrayal Bond
Verbal Abuse As Damaging As Physical Abuse
Warning Signs of an Abusive Personality
What To Do When Your 'Worm' Comes Crawling Back
When You Keep Thinking And Hoping He'll Change
When Your Perfect Partner Goes Perfectly WRONG
Will The Games End When I Leave?
You Are Nothing But An Object....
Cheating Statistics
Affairs
American Sex Lives-2004 ABC Airing
Why Men Cheat
Dating Advice
Bad Relationships - How did I get so stupid?
How To Spot A Married Man on a Dating Site
If he doesn't call, it means...
Signs she is about to dump you
You Think He'll be Different with You
Divorce
Dealing With An Abuser During the Divorce
Divorce Statistics
Hiring An Attorney
How to Win When Facing Divorce
Japan's Divorce Rate Hits All Time High
What Is Mental Cruelty?
Your REAL Chance of Divorce
Gender Difference Studies
How Male and Female Brains Differ
Men Lie More Than Women?
General Relationship Articles
Are You Addicted to Bad Relationships?
BOLD FACED LIARS
BUT I LOVE HIM & MISS HIM!!
Confusing Love With Obsession
DENIAL: What is it? What does it look like?
Emotional Dynamics in Dysfunctional Relationships
Getting the Attention you Want
How Can I Help The Bordeline In My Life
Oprah's Opinion about Men
Pornography Addiction - The Progression
The (How Not To Be A) Bad Lover List
What is Emotional Rape
Women & The Disease to Please
Healthy Relationship Articles
Basic Needs in Relationships
Keys to a Healthy Relationship
Meeting Your Partner's Needs
What is REAL Love?
What is REAL Love? Part II
You Deserve a GOOD BOY!
Internet Cheating Articles
Are You A Victim of Sweetheart Fraud?
Bi-Polars and Internet Relationships
Can You Surf Without Wiping Out?
Cyber Cheating - A Growing Cause of Divorce
Dating Sites Sued for Fraud
Gordon B. Hinkley, Pres. LDS Church (The Mormons)
How To Seduce Women Online
Is Cybersex Cheating?
LIES WE TELL OURSELVES
Online Dating Attracts Married Folks
Profile of the Mental Rapist
Red Flags to Watch Out for When On-Line Dating
Serial "Web Romeo" Sued Over Kooky Come-Ons
The Cyber Lothario
The Cyber-Narcissist
The Lures of the Online Predator
The Online Disinhibition Effect
Virtual Relationships & Online Betrayals
Warnings Signs of Love/Sex/Cybersex Addictions
We Just Clicked
Marriage Articles
Marrying Later in Life Lessens Chances of Divorce
Nomarriagedotcom
Medical Articles
Adult Immunizations
All About AntiDepressants
Bariatric Surgery/Gastric Bypass
BOTOX
Endometriosis
Epileptic Seizures
Herbal Remedies
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
LASIK and other refractive surgeries
Social Anxiety Disorder
Suicide Information
The Physical Symptoms of Depression
The Pill & Breast Cancer?
Urinary Tract Infections
Viagra/Levitra/Cialis - Long Term Effects?
What is depersonalization disorder?
What Is Shared Psychotic Disorder?
When Someone Threatens Suicide
Women & Depression
Men's Advice for Women
Americanwomensuckdotcom
Men's Top 10 Rules for Women
The Art of Seduction (How they do it)
Men's Relationship Articles
Breaking Up Is Hard On Men, Too
Domestic Abuse Against Men
What Porn Teaches Men About Women
Miscellaneous
CELL PHONE DATA NEVER DIES
Cyberstalking in the 21st Century
Did You Have An Emotionally Abusive Mother?
How to Deal With an Overbearing Mother
How To Pass A Lie Detector Test
IDENTITY THEFT: Protect Yourself!
Is It Legal to Expose a Cheater or Abuser Online?
Man Convicted for having Sex with Cows
Man dies from ruptured colon from sex with horse
Man gets the ULTIMATE Revenge!
MySpace & Related Sites: Safety Tips
New 3' Human
The Heavy Cost of Chronic Stress
There's No Excuse to Avoid Counseling
You Can't Fight Depression On Your Own
News
A drug that induces love may be in the near future
Japanese Develop "Female" Android
National Singles Week Sept 21-27
Online Dating Sites Sued for Fraud
Rape Statistics
Rape Facts & Statistics
Rape Survival, Defense and Healing
The Facts & Statistics about Rape
Sex Articles
10 Steps to Picking Up Girls
Porn Use and Sex Crimes
What Are Paraphilias?
WHO ARE THE MEN BUYING PROSTITUTES?
Sex Laws
Worldwide Sexual Age of Consent Chart
Sexual Infidelity Articles
Cake Men (Men who want their cake & to eat it too)
Don't Have an Affair with a Married Man
Infidelity - A Form of Abuse
MEN & PROSTITUTES
Prostitution Flourishes Online
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The "Other Woman" - What's she like?
The Monogamy Myth
Why Spouses Stray
Why Women Cheat
You're Joined the Adulterers Club!
Single Women
Best Cities in America for Singles
How to Life a Romantic Life Without a Relationship
Japanese women staying single by the droves
More Single Women, than Married in NYC
Single By Choice
Single Mother's in US sky rockets
Single Women Have 35% of Babies
Surviving Infidelity
5 Things You SHOULDN'T DO If He's Cheating On You
Comparisons With the Other Woman
Emotional Detachment
Falling Apart Safely After the Break-Up
Keys to Personal Recovery
RECOVERY FROM THE RELATIONSHIP
Some Thoughts on Healing from the Relationship
The "Need to Know"
Top 10 Reasons to Expose A Cheater or Abuser
When Your Perfect Partner Goes Perfectly Wrong
Websites that help cheaters
Ashley Madison: When Monogamy Becomes Monotony
Fast Seduction
Meet 2 Cheat!
Philanderers.com
Secrets of Sexual Addiction
The Erotic Review (TER)
Website helps men cheat on their partners
Women Over 40
Andy Rooney's View of Women Over 40
Written or quoted by Little Miss WomanSaver
7 Signs of How to Tell if It's Just a Spring Break
Show Instead of Tell
Women & Depression

Depression: Depression in Women

Women are twice as likely to develop depression than men. In fact, from 10% to 25% of women will experience an episode of major depression at some time in their lives.

Why is Depression More Common in Women?

Rates of depression are similar in girls and boys before adolescence. However, with the onset of puberty, a female's risk of developing depression increases dramatically, to twice that of males. Experts believe that women may be more prone to depression because of changes in hormone levels that occur throughout a woman's life such as during puberty, pregnancy and menopause, as well as after giving birth, having a hysterectomy, or experiencing a miscarriage. In addition, the hormone fluctuations that occur with each month's menstrual cycle increase the risk for premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD.

According to the National Institutes of Health, several other factors that are unique to women may contribute to their higher rates of depression. These include reproductive, genetic or other biological factors, interpersonal factors, and certain psychological and personality characteristics.

In addition, for women trying to balance a home and a career, stresses continue to pile up.

What Factors Place a Woman at Higher Risk For Depression?

  • Loss of a parent before age 10
  • Physical or sexual abuse as a child.
  • History of mood disorders in early reproductive years.
  • Family history of mood disorders.
  • Use of certain oral contraceptives.
  • Use of certain infertility treatments.
  • Ongoing psychological and social stress (e.g., loss of job, relationship stress, separation or divorce).
  • Loss of social support system or the threat of such a loss

How Does Depression Differ in Women and Men?

There are several ways:

  • Depression in women may occur earlier, last longer, be more likely to recur, be more likely to be associated with stressful life events, and be more sensitive to seasonal changes.
  • Women are more likely to experience guilty feelings and attempt suicide, although they are successful less often than men.
  • Depression in women is more likely to be associated with anxiety disorders, especially panic and phobic symptoms, and eating disorders.
  • Depressed women are less likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs.

Premenstrual Syndrome, Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and Depression

Up to 75% of menstruating women experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS), a disorder characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that fluctuate in intensity from one menstrual cycle to the next. Women in their 20's or 30's are usually who are affected.

About 3-5% of menstruating women experience premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD, a severe form of PMS, marked by highly emotional and physical symptoms that usually become more severe 7 to 10 days before the onset of menstruation.

In the last decade, these fluctuations in hormone levels have become recognized as important causes of discomfort and behavioral change in women. While the precise link between PMS, PMDD and depression is still unknown, chemical changes in the brain and fluctuating hormone levels are both thought to be contributing factors.

Treating PMS and PMDD

Many women find improvement by exercising, taking vitamins and avoiding caffeine. For individuals with severe symptoms, medicine, individual and group psychotherapy, stress management, or marital therapy can be helpful.

Depression in Pregnancy

Pregnancy has long been viewed as a period of well-being that protected women against psychiatric disorders. But depression occurs almost as commonly in pregnant women as it does in those who are not pregnant.

What Factors Increase My Risk of Being Depressed in Pregnancy?

The factors which increase the risk of depression during pregnancy are:

  • Having a history of depression or PMDD.
  • Age at time of pregnancy -- the younger you are, the higher the risk.
  • Living alone.
  • Limited social support.
  • Marital conflict.
  • Uncertainty about the pregnancy.

What is the Impact of Depression on Pregnancy?

The potential impact of depression on a pregnancy include:

  • It can interfere with a woman's ability to care for herself during pregnancy. She may be less able to follow medical recommendations, and sleep and eat properly.
  • Depression can cause a woman to use substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and/or illegal drugs, which could harm the baby.
  • Depression can make bonding with the baby difficult.

How Does Pregnancy Impact Depression?

Pregnancy may impact depression by:

  • The stresses of pregnancy can cause depression or a recurrence or worsening of depression symptoms.
  • Depression during pregnancy can increase the risk for having depression after delivery (postpartum depression, see below).

So What are My Options if I'm Depressed During My Pregnancy?

Preparing for a new baby is lots of hard work, but your health should come first. Resist the urge to get everything done, cut down on your chores, and do things that will help you to relax. In addition, talking about things that concern you is very important. Talk to your friends, your partner and your family. If you ask for support, you will find you often get it.

If all else fails and you're still feeling down and anxious, consider seeking therapy. Ask your doctor or midwife for a referral to a mental healthcare professional.

Treating Depression During Pregnancy

Growing evidence suggests that many of the currently available antidepressant medicines are safe for treating depression during pregnancy, at least in terms of short-term effects on the baby. Long-term effects have not been properly studied. You should discuss the possible risks and benefits with your doctor.

Depression After the Birth of a Child

Postpartum depression, depression following childbirth, is a complex mix of physical, emotional, and behavioral changes that are attributed to the chemical, social, and psychological changes associated with having a baby. For more on this condition, including causes and treatments, see the article on postpartum depression.

Perimenopause and Menopause and Depression

Perimenopause is the stage of a woman's reproductive life that begins 8 to 10 years before menopause. During this time the ovaries gradually begin to produce less estrogen. Perimenopause lasts up until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last one to two years of perimenopause, the decrease in estrogen accelerates. At this stage, many women experience menopausal symptoms.

What is Menopause?

Menopause is period of time when a woman stops having her monthly period and experiences symptoms related to the lack of estrogen production. By definition, a woman is in menopause after her periods have stopped for one year. It is a normal part of aging and marks the end of a woman's reproductive years. Menopause typically occurs in a woman's late 40's to early 50's. However, women who have their ovaries surgically removed undergo "sudden" menopause.

The drop in estrogen levels during perimenopause and menopause triggers physical, as well as emotional changes -- such as depression or anxiety and changes in memory. Like any other point in a woman's life, there is a relationship between hormone levels and physical and emotional symptoms. Some physical changes include irregular or skipped periods, heavier or lighter periods, and hot flashes.

Coping With the Symptoms of Menopause

There are many ways you can ease menopause symptoms and maintain your health. These tips include ways to cope with mood swings, fears and depression:

  • Find a self-calming skill to practice such as yoga, meditation or slow, deep breathing.
  • Avoid tranquilizers.
  • Engage in a creative outlet or hobby that fosters a sense of achievement.
  • Stay connected with your family and community and nurture your friendships.
  • Seek emotional support from friends, family members or a professional counselor when needed.
  • Take steps to stay cool during hot flashes, such as wearing loose clothing.
  • Keep your bedroom cool to prevent night sweats and disturbed sleep.
  • Take medicines, vitamins and minerals as prescribed by your doctor.
  • Eat healthfully and exercise regularly.

What are my Options For Treating Depression During This Phase of My Life?

Depression during perimenopause and menopause is treated in much the same way as depression that strikes at any other time.

If you are experiencing symptoms of depression, talk to your doctor about finding a treatment that will work for you.

http://www.webmd.com

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